Kurdistan between illusion and truth. Part (17)

Our article today talks about Kurdish emirates and governments established during a thousand years and more, it talks about the place and time of its emergence.

We will notice that they are all outside the Syrian island, where they did not have a foothold, as the Kurdish leader (Abdullah Ocalan) spoke.

First: the Rwandan government, and it appears to be the longest-lived Kurdish government (230- 618) AH and originated in Tabriz, the oldest Kurdish government. It was established in Azerbaijan, Iran, by the Kurds of Dilam.

Second: the Salari government of Azerbaijan, Iran as well; It erected from the year (300 – until the year 420 AH).

Third: The Husaynid government (Hassounism) originated in Hamazan (330 to the year 405 AH) in Azerbaijan, Iran and Erbil in Iraq.

Fourth: The Shaddiyah government in Iran, founded by Banu Shaddad. There is no definitive text that it is Kurdish, and all that came about it is that the author of the book History of the Kurdish States and Emirates in Islam said, p / 90:” Historians think it is Kurdish” so he is not sure that it is Kurdish.

Fifth: The Dostokian and Marawan government in Diyarbakir, year (350-370), has arisen up to a year (476 AH).

In the year (373 AH), a battle took place between Abu Shuja`, the leader of Dostkiyya, and Samsam al-Dawla al-Daylami over al-Khabur.

(Refer to the previous source, p. 97). Mosul and the Euphrates Island at that time were two Hamdanid emirates, as were the inhabitants of Aqil, and the Banu Numayr Arabs, alongside the Hamdanis.

In the year (380 AH), the Arabs killed Abu Shuja’a, and his army retreated defeated to Diyarbakir, and his nephew Abu Ali came and extended his rule until (Akhlat, the sanctuary of Kurd and Argish, to the northeast of Lake Wan). And the rule of the Maronite state extended to (402 AH).

And the Marawans were Arabs who were converted to Kurdish. The grandchildren of the last Umayyad caliph, Marawan al-Hammar, whom the Abbasids conquered and killed.

He had two Kurdish wives, so he left his children with their uncles and went out to fight the Abbasids. In the year (416 AH), the Kurdish Nasrualdulah tried to take over the city of Edessa (Urfa).

It was in the hands of Bani Nameer and its sheikh, Atir, but he was unsuccessful and killed.

Sixth: The government of Bani Annan, Anaz, or Ayyar from northern Iran (380-510 AH) and its founder, Muhammad ibn Ayyar, the Prince of the Kurds of Al-Shazanjan. It ended after a long struggle between the princes brothers and ceased to exist.

Seventh: The Shabankara government, or Shwankara in Persia, and was founded by the sheikh of the Shabankara Kurdish tribe (Fadlawi Bin Ali Bin Hassan Bin Ayoub).

Eighth: The government of Atabikiya (550 to 827 AH), This government originated in Iran east of Lorestan and came from the Taurus Mountains at the end of the fifth century AH, as mentioned in (Department of Islamic Knowledge C / 3) and was composed of a hundred Kurdish families.

Ninth: The government of the Little Ler (570-1250 AH) was established by the Khurshid dynasty, north of Lorestan, from Persia.

Tenth: The government of Bani Ardalan (617-1284 AH) from the countries of Iran was established at the end of the Abbasid era.

Eleventh: The government of the kings of the Kurds or the Kurts. This government was established in the Sijestan region (764-643), and then it resurrected from the year (785 to 1383 AH) and was in the country (Herat, Ghor, Gherghatan, Seitan) during the era of the Iranian Ilkhanis.

Twelfth: The government of the Barkhoyan emirate (1172-1300 AH).

The researcher notes two things in the section that tracks the emirates and the governments that were mentioned as Kurdish.

The first: that the founders of these governments were not all Kurds, they included Kurds, Arabs, and Turkmen.

The second: The governments or the emirates were not pure Kurds, as there was a mixture in them, as was the era of the Islamic Kingdom.

To be continued….

( By : Dr. Ali al – Shoaibi )

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